There is nothing scarier than having to perform first aid on your child, but in that situation would you know what to do?

ScienceDaily state- Choking is a leading cause of injury and death among children, especially those younger than 4 years of age. The majority of choking-related incidents among children are associated with food, coins and toys.

This is a scary statistic. It’s often in the news. The latest one being the 5-year-old boy who tragically died at school after he choked on his school dinner. Would you know what to do?

The following medical advice has been provided by St John Ambulance.

First aid advice for babies

1. What to do if your baby is choking

Your baby may be choking if they suddenly become distressed, have noisy breathing or if they are unable to cry or cough. In some cases, they may not be able to make any noise or breathe.

How to treat a choking baby-

1. Slap it out

Lay your baby face down on your thigh and support their head. Give up to 5 back blows between their shoulder blades with the heel of your hand.

2. Check their mouth-

Lay your baby on your thigh face up

Carefully pick out any obvious objects with your fingers

3. Squeeze it out-

Using two fingers, give up to 5 downward chest thrusts

Check the mouth. If the obstruction hasn’t cleared, call 999 or 112 for emergency help.

4. Call 999 or 112

Take your baby with you and call 999 or 112

Repeat the above steps 1-3 until help arrives

If they become un unresponsive at any stage, open their airway and check their breathing. · If they’re not breathing, start CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation ‒ chest compressions and rescue breaths). Follow the instructions for treating a baby who is unresponsive and not breathing.

Head injuries

When your baby starts to crawl, they can quite easily fall or bump their head on furniture or other objects around them. Most of the time, any injury will be minor and they may not even cry, but sometimes a bump on the head can be more serious. Make sure you know what to do if your baby has sustained a head injury.

Head injuries in babies-

Look for a wound or bump to the head

For a severe head injury, for example, if your baby has fallen downstairs, you may see:

* • That they are unresponsive

* • They may have drowsiness

* • Fits (seizure)

* • Vomiting

* • Fluid draining from their ears or nose

Head injuries in babies- what to do:

1. If the injury is minor, just a bump and they are still alert, sit them on your lap and try to hold something cold, like frozen peas wrapped in a cloth, against the injury.

2. If you are worried that the injury may be more than a simple knock or your baby has an open wound or deep bruising, seek medical advice.

3. If you have called for help, while you’re waiting, keep checking your baby and whether they respond to you. If they become unresponsive prepare to do baby CPR.

Baby CPR

If your baby is not responding to you and you think they are unresponsive try to see if they react when you gently tap or flick the sole of their foot. If they do not wake up or respond to you they are likely to be unresponsive.

Check to see if they are still breathing normally. If they are unresponsive and not breathing normally open their airway and check their breathing again by looking for chest movement, listening for the sounds of normal breathing and seeing if you can feel their breath on your cheek.

If they are not breathing normally, you need to start CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation – a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths) straight away.

What to do- Unresponsive and not breathing baby

If someone is with you, get them to call 999 or 112 for emergency help.

If you’re on your own, you need to give one-minute worth of CPR before you can call for help. This involves giving chest compressions and rescue breaths to keep the baby’s circulation going.

Step 1-

* If there is anything in their mouth pick it out and ensure the airway is clear and open.

* Take a breath in and place your lips around the baby’s mouth and nose to form an airtight seal.

* If you cannot make a seal around the mouth and nose, close the baby’s mouth and make a seal around the nose only.

* Blow steadily into the mouth until the chest rises.

* Remove your mouth and allow the chest to fall.

* Repeat four times more.

* Now Give 30 chest compressions.

Step 2-

* Place two fingertips of your lower hand on the centre of the baby’s chest.

* Press down vertically on the breastbone, and press the chest down by at least one-third of its depth.

* Release the pressure without moving your fingers from their chest. Allow the chest to come back up fully – this is one compression.

* Repeat this 30 times, at a rate of about twice a second – the speed of the song ‘Staying Alive’.

* Now give two rescue breaths.

* Carry on giving 30 chest compressions followed by two rescue breaths for as long as you can, or until help arrives.

* If the baby starts breathing normally again, stop CPR and put them in the recovery position.

Step 3-

* Cradle them in your arms, with their head tilted downwards. This will keep their airway open and stop them choking on their tongue or breathing in any vomit. Continue until help arrives.

Burns and scalds

As your baby explores the world around them, they may come into contact with something that can burn or scald them. A burn is usually caused by dry heat, like a flame or fire, a hot iron, or the sunshine. A scald is caused by wet heat, like steam or a hot cup of tea.

Read the advice below to find out how to treat your baby if they have a burn or a scald. You may also need to treat them for shock.

What to look for:

Your baby may cry or appear to be in pain, and you may see a reddened or swollen patch of skin. Your baby’s skin may also have blisters and their skin may be peeling.

What to do if your baby has a burn or scald

* Run the area under cold water: move your baby away from the source of heat and cool the burn or scald by running it under cold water. Don’t use ice, creams or gels – they can damage tissues and increase the risk of infection.

* Remove the clothing around the burn unless it’s stuck to it.

* Protect from infection: cover the burn with cling film or a clean plastic bag to protect it from infection. Don’t wrap the cling film too tightly as it can cut off circulation.

* Always seek medical advice if your baby has a burn or a scald. Serious burns or scalds are where the burn is on the face, hands or feet, if the injured area is larger than the size of the baby’s hand, or if it’s a deep burn. Serious burns need emergency treatment – call 999 or 112.

* While you are waiting for help, treat them for shock if necessary.